Radiation Research Aims to Improve Disaster Response
New portable dosimeter can be deployed quickly and in any setting
Looking Back One Year Ago
On March 11, 2011, an earthquake and tsunami triggered a massive failure and meltdown at Japan's Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant, releasing radioactive material into the environment. Although officials initially downplayed the magnitude of the incident, people in the vicinity of the plant were evacuated and, when testing indicated large-scale contamination, sale of food grown in the area was prohibited and restrictions were placed on water consumption. Unfortunately for the many Fukushima employees, rescue workers, and area residents who were potentially endangered, there was no realistic way of testing people for their degree of exposure. The only deaths immediately attributed to the accident were the result of the initial natural disasters, but the public was very alarmed and concerned about the potential for direct effects from the radiation.
Field Testing Radiation in a Disaster
Researchers at Norris Cotton Cancer Center have been working to perfect an easy-to-use, reasonably portable dosimeter, invented by radiologist Harold Swartz, MD, PhD, MPH, to detect levels of radiation in teeth. In 2010, the National Institutes of Health recognized Swartz's research in electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with a $16.6 million/five-year commitment to allow Dartmouth's EPR Center to form the Biodosimetry Center for Medical Countermeasures Against Radiation (Dart-Dose CMCR).
Dart-Dose CMCR is one of seven centers nationwide focusing, through the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, on one or more aspects of medical response to large-scale incidents. Dart-Dose CMCR is unique among these centers in its development of ways to measure exposure to radiation based on an individual's teeth and nails. (Teeth and nails serve like "radiation badges" that everybody always has with them.) This technology is being developed so it can be deployed quickly and used in any setting where people could quickly assemble such as a school gymnasium, a church basement, or a tent with access to electricity using only a generator.
Partners Across the Globe United
While Dartmouth is the lead institution for these efforts, our collaborating partners include industry (General Electric), universities and research centers throughout the U.S. ( Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, University of Florida, Medical College of Wisconsin, University of Denver, Paffenbarger Research Center of the American Dental Association Foundation, and National Institute of Standards and Technology), and international research institutions (including Japan's Hokkaido University and National Institute of Public Health, Poland's Jagiellonian University, Belgium's Université Catholique de Louvain, Netherland's Leiden University Medical Centre, Israel's Technion-Institute of Technology, Russia's Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, and Canada's University of Western Ontario).
Technology Offers Worldwide Impact
Although this technology potentially has multiple uses, the current focus of EPR research is on helping in situations, such as nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks, where people may have been exposed to radiation but don't know their level of exposure. The ability to make fast, accurate assessments of exposure will allow doctors to identify and treat those patients most in need of immediate attention.
How to Get Involved
As the next phase in their work, researchers are looking for volunteers to participate in EPR screenings. For the study, volunteers who have and have not been exposed to radiation are needed. There are two ways to volunteer: by having your front tooth measured or by having your nails clipped.
For teeth measurements, volunteers sit at an EPR machine with their forehead resting on a padded bar, similar to the positioning used in eye exams. The volunteer's head is placed between the two halves (poles) of a magnet that has roughly the equivalent strength of a common refrigerator magnet. A bite plate will gently hold up the upper lip so that the enamel of the upper front teeth can be tested. Each measurement lasts about 80 seconds, with five different measurements in total. The process typically takes about 15 minutes total and does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation. In order to be eligible, adults must be able to sit still for 5-10 minutes with their mouth open and have at least one "real" top front tooth (free of braces and caps).
To have your nails measured, you must have fingernails (polished or unpolished) long enough to be clipped and be willing to take a few minutes to answer a brief questionnaire about nail health.
March 05, 2012
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