Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.
It is possible that the main title of the report Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is not the name you expected. Please check the synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and disorder subdivision(s) covered by this report.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rare muscle disorder but it is one of the most frequent genetic conditions affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 male births worldwide. It is usually recognized between three and six years of age. DMD is characterized by weakness and wasting (atrophy) of the muscles of the pelvic area followed by the involvement of the shoulder muscles. As the disease progresses, muscle weakness and atrophy spread to affect the trunk and forearms and gradually progress to involve additional muscles of the body. The disease is progressive and most affected individuals require a wheelchair by the teenage years. Serious life-threatening complications may ultimately develop including disease of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and breathing (respiratory) difficulties.
DMD is caused by changes (mutations) of the DMD gene on the X chromosome. The gene regulates the production of a protein called dystrophin that is found in association with the inner side of the membrane of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Dystrophin is thought to play an important role in maintaining the structure of these muscle cells.
DMD is classified as a dystrophinopathy. The dystrophinopathies are a spectrum of muscle diseases, each caused by alterations in the dystrophin gene. The severe end of the spectrum is known as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and the less severe as Becker muscular dystrophy.
The dystrophinopathies belong to a large group of diseases known as the muscular dystrophies. These disorders are characterized by specific changes (e.g. variation of muscle fiber size, muscle fiber necrosis and inflammation) in muscle biopsy. The clinical hallmarks include the weakness and wasting of various voluntary muscles of the body. Approximately 30 different conditions make up the muscular dystrophies. The diseases affect different muscles and have different ages of onset, severity and inheritance patterns.
March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation
1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
White Plains, NY 10605
Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy
401 Hackensack Avenue, 9th Floor
Hackensack, NJ 07601
Muscular Dystrophy Association
3300 East Sunrise Drive
Tucson, AZ 85718-3208
Muscular Dystrophy Canada
2345 Yonge Street Suite 900
Ontario, M4P 2E5
Muscular Dystrophy Campaign
61 Southwark Street
London, SE1 0HL
NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Society for Muscular Dystrophy Information International
P.O. Box 7490
Nova Scotia, B4V 2X6
European Alliance of Neuromuscular Disorders Associations
MDG Malta 4
Gzira, GAR 04
New Horizons Un-Limited, Inc.
811 East Wisconsin Ave
P.O. Box 510034
Milwaukee, WI 53203
Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center
PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
PO Box 241956
Los Angeles, CA 90024
Let Them Hear Foundation
1900 University Avenue, Suite 101
East Palo Alto, CA 94303
Emory University, Department of Human Genetics
2165 N. Decatur Road
Atlanta, GA 30033
1400 Quail Street, Suite 110
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Muscular Dystrophy Association of Kosovo
Str"Ardian Krasnici N:6/22
Republic of Kosovo
Child Neurology Foundation
2000 West 98th Street
Bloomington, MN 55431
Medical Home Portal
Dept. of Pediatrics
University of Utah
P.O. Box 581289
Salt Lake City, UT 84158
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Last Updated: 9/7/2012
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